A study on the reproductive structures and characteristics of liveworts mosses and hornworts

Branching is typically sympodial with the branches morphologically comparable to the determinant main shoot from which they arise.

These are produced in a more-or-less elaborated splash-cup on the upper epidermis. The spores are polar, usually with a distinctive Y-shaped tri-radiate ridge on the proximal surface, and with a distal surface ornamented with bumps or spines.

Rather, water and nutrients circulate inside specialized conducting cells. Such colonies of bacteria growing inside the thallus give the hornwort a distinctive blue-green color.

For this reason it is able to grow in places too dark for other mosses. The seta is usually composed of parenchyma cells, stereids, and many times a well developed conducting strand. The xylem-like water-and-mineral-conducting tissue is called hydroid.

Many derived mosses have yet another control on spore dispersal: A thallose liverwortLunularia cruciata Liverworts can most reliably be distinguished from the apparently similar mosses by their single-celled rhizoids.


When the sporangium is mature, the operculum breaks off, and the peristome is left holding the spores in place. This phase lasts only a short while and is only a few cells large.

This contrasts sharply with the pattern exhibited by nearly all animals and by most other plants. A single thallus produces many sporophytes and a hornwort sporophyte is typically an erect, elongated, tapering, horn-like or needle-like structure.

Diploid sporophyte is typically not photosynthetic and so is parasitic dependent on the gametophyte for its nutrition. Liverworts have a gametophyte -dominant life cycle, with the sporophyte dependent on the gametophyte. Buckbut cladocarpy has evolved in several different lineages.

Thallose liverworts in which there is such a differentiation of cell function are called complex thallose liverworts.

The thallus is typically dark green though light green to yellowish in Notothylas and is typically many cells thick, though the genus Dendroceros is an exception. The leaves grow above-ground see the photograph above.

Plant Divisions: Mosses, Liverworts and Hornworts

The antheridium sterile jacket has a cap cell which disintegrates when turgor pressure rises. Rhizoids are similar to roots, in that they transport water and nutrients, and anchor the plant to the soil or substrate, but are much simpler in form, often only one cell thick.

Seedless Plants

leafy liverworts look like mosses to the untrained eye, but thalloid liverworts are green ribbon-like, branched plants, usually growing along the ground. marchantia and conocephalum are two of the.


Plant Reproduction Essays. A Lab Experiment to Understand the Reproductive Structures and Functions of the Different Types of Plants. 1, words. 5 pages. A Study on the Reproductive Structures and Characteristics of Liveworts, Mosses, and Hornworts. 1, words. 7 pages. Club mosses.

Horsetails. Whisk ferns. Gymnosperm is seed plants that produce seeds that do not develop with in a fruit and angiosperm are seed plants that produce reproductive structures in flowers and seeds within a fruit.

The most common plants that are nonvascular are: mosses,liveworts,hornworts for vascular: ferns,mosses,horsetails. Architectural Structures () Architecture and Urbanism () Chinese Architecture () History and Theory (83) Japanese Architecture (3) Landscape Architecture (18) Planning and Development (21) Sustainable Environmental Design (24) Technology and Practice (9).

CHAPTER Bryophytes structure and reproduction. Sections --"A" Subsection "1" What is bryophytes?- Introduction. Habitats of Bryophytes. Classification of Bryophytes. Sections --"A" Subsections --"2" General Characteristics of Bryophyta (Liverworts, Hornworts and Mosses) BIO LAB QUIZ 2 - Phylum Bryophyta.

STUDY. PLAY. Examples: mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. Marchantia. Gemmae. Liveworts produce small cup-shaped structure multicellular asexual reproductive structures; a miniature thallus that will produce a thallus exactly like the one that gave rise to .

A study on the reproductive structures and characteristics of liveworts mosses and hornworts
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